America’s National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) advised the abandonment of SMS-based two-factor authentication already in July 2016. According to NIST, companies that implement new systems should consider alternative authenticators, because of the risk that SMS messages or voice calls may be intercepted or redirected.
On July 1st 2016, the eIDAS Regulation went into effect, aiming to enable mutual recognition and acceptance of electronic identification schemes across EU borders. European Commission was dissatisfied with its predecessor, the E-signature Directive (1999). eIDAS was set out to give consistency to electronic signature regulations in the EU.